Tuesday, June 2, 2020

04 Works, Today, June 2nd is The Holy Martyr Constantine's day, his story in Paintings #153

Artist unknown
The Holy Martyr Constantine

The Holy Martyr Constantine was born upon the island of Mytilene, the capital city and port of the island of Lesbos, into a Muslim family. At the age of 15 he fell ill with smallpox, from which he completely lost his eyesight and awaited death. A certain Christian took him to church and washed him with holy water. They brought him out of the temple completely healthy.

His father died early. His mother married again, but his new father was bad and was a drunk. Because of this he moved to Smyrna with his three siblings. He would go continually to the Metropolis of Smyrna, a Greek city located on the Aegean coast of Anatolia, where he heard and learned the Greek language and the Christian faith.


Artist unknown
St. Gregory V, Patriarch of Constantinople

He decided to flee to the Holy Mountain, Mount Athos today,  in northern Greece, site of a semi autonomous republic of Greek Orthodox monks inhabiting 20 monasteries and dependencies, but no one accepted him. Then St. Gregory V, Patriarch of Constantinople, who was in exile on Athos, having tested him, baptized him as a Christian in Kavsokalyvia, with the name Konstantinos. 

In the Skete of the Precious Forerunner, a term often used for a small monastic community, he venerated the precious relics of the new martyrs and he was seized with the desire to imitate their deeds. Having passed time in fasting and prayer close to a spiritual father, he decided to go to Magnesia, to have his sister baptized as a Christian. After the advice of the Fathers, however, he sailed from the Holy Mountain and landed in Kydonies. 


Artist unknown
The Holy Martyr Constantine

There he was recognized by some Turk who led him to the Aga. He confessed Christ and then confessed his origin. He was imprisoned and terribly tortured. When they questioned him again, Konstantinos made the sign of the Cross before them, thus demonstrating his immovable faith. Then they again imprisoned him and tortured him in a terrible manner. 


Artist unknown
The Holy Martyr Constantine

But the leader, seeing that his efforts were in vain, sent him to Constantinople. There having suffered difficult tortures, in the end he was hanged on June 2nd 1819. More on The Holy Martyr Constantine





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright
I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.
I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.
 If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.
 Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.
 Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Monday, June 1, 2020

06 Works, Today, June 1st is Saint Justin Martyr's day, his story in Paintings #152

St Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr, an early Christian apologist, is regarded as the foremost exponent of the Divine Word, the Logos, in the second century. He was martyred, alongside some of his students, and is venerated as saint by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.

Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue did survive. The First Apology, his most well known text, passionately defends the morality of the Christian life, and provides various ethical and philosophical arguments to convince the Roman emperor, Antoninus, to abandon the persecution of the Church. 


Jacques Callot, French
A bearded Justin Martyr presenting an open book to a Roman emperor, c. 1632-1635

Jacques Callot, (born March–August 1592, Nancy, France—died March 24, 1635, Nancy), French printmaker who was one of the first great artists to practice the graphic arts exclusively. His innovative series of prints documenting the horrors of war greatly influenced the socially conscious artists of the 19th and 20th centuries.


He learned the technique of engraving in Rome. About 1612 he went to Florence. At that time Medici patronage expended itself almost exclusively in feste, quasi-dramatic pageants, sometimes dealing in allegorical subjects, and Callot was employed to make pictorial records of these mannered, sophisticated entertainments. He succeeded in evolving a naturalistic style while preserving the artificiality of the occasion, organizing a composition as if it were a stage setting and reducing the figures to a tiny scale, each one indicated by the fewest possible strokes. This required a very fine etching technique. His breadth of observation, his lively figure style, and his skill in assembling a large, jostling crowd secured for his etchings a lasting popular influence all over Europe.

He illustrated sacred books, made a series of plates of the Apostles, and visited Paris to etch animated maps of the sieges of La Rochelle and the Île de Ré. In his last great series of etchings, the “small” (1632) and the “large” (1633) The Miseries and Misfortunes of War, he brought his documentary genius to bear on the atrocities of the Thirty Years’ War. Callot is also well known for his landscape drawings in line and wash and for his quick figure studies in chalk. More on Jacques Callot

Further, he also indicates, as St. Augustine would later, regarding the "true religion" that predated Christianity, that the "seeds of Christianity" actually predated Christ's incarnation. This notion allows him to claim many historical Greek philosophers (including Socrates and Plato), in whose works he was well studied, as unknowing Christians.

ST. JUSTIN was born of heathen parents at Neapolis in Samaria, about the year 103. He was well educated, and gave himself to the study of philosophy, but always with one object, that he might learn the knowledge of God. He sought this knowledge among the contending schools of philosophy.


Saint Justin chanced upon an old man, possibly a Syrian Christian

Some time afterwards, he chanced upon an old man, possibly a Syrian Christian, in the vicinity of the seashore, who engaged him in a dialogue about God and spoke of the testimony of the prophets as being more reliable than the reasoning of philosophers.

Moved by the aged man's argument, Justin choose to re-dedicate his life to the service of the Divine. His newfound convictions were only bolstered by the ascetic lives of the early Christians and the heroic example of the martyrs, whose piety convinced him of the moral and spiritual superiority of Christian doctrine. 

As a result, he decided that the only option for him was to travel throughout the land, spreading the knowledge of Christianity as the "true philosophy." His conversion is commonly assumed to have taken place at Ephesus though it may have occurred anywhere on the road from Syria Palestina to Rome.


Trial of Justin The Philosopher Justin Martyr

He then adopted the dress of a philosopher himself and traveled about teaching. During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138–161), he arrived in Rome and started his own school. In the reign of Marcus Aurelius, after disputing with the cynic philosopher Crescens, he was denounced by the latter to the authorities. Justin was tried, together with six companions, by Junius Rusticus, who was urban prefect from 163–167, and was beheaded. The martyrdom of Justin preserves the court record of the trial. More on Saint Justin Martyr


 Execution of St. Justin the Philosopher
Mosaic
Mount of Beatitudes, Palestine

Saint Justin Martyr's story





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright
I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.
I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.
 If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.
 Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.
 Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Sunday, May 31, 2020

06 Works, Today, May 31st is Saint Aurelia Petronilla's day, her story in Paintings #151

Saint Petronilla (Petronille)
Oil on canvas
Musée Contes

Saint Aurelia Petronilla is an early Christian saint. She was venerated as a virgin martyr by the Catholic Church. She died in Rome at the end of 1st century, or possibly in the 3rd century.

Petronilla, her name is the feminine and diminutive of Peter, and is traditionally identified as the daughter of Saint Peter, though this may stem simply from the similarity of names. It is believed she may have been a convert of the saint (and thus a "spiritual daughter"), or a follower or servant. It is said that Saint Peter cured her of palsy.


Bartolo di Fredi, c. 1330 – c. 1409.
The Healing of St. Petronilla by Peter the Apostle, c. 1380
On wood
28.9 cm × 26.6 cm
Siena, Pinacoteca Nazionale

Saint Petronilla depicted being healed by Saint Peter the Apostle.


Bartolo di Fredi (c. 1330 – January 26, 1410) was an Italian painter, born in Siena, classified as a member of the Sienese School. Bartolo di Fredi was one of the most popular masters in Siena in the second half of the fourteenth century.

He registered in the Guild of that city in 1355. He helped decorate the Hall of Council at Siena, in 1361. In 1362 he went to San Gimignano, where, by 1356, he had painted the entire side of the left aisle of the Pieve with scenes drawn from the Old Testament. In 1366 the Council of the city of Gimignano ordered a painting, representing Two Monks of the Augustine Order to be placed in the Palazzo Pubblico In the early part of 1367 he returned to Siena, and was employed with Giacomo di Mino in the decorations of the cathedral. In 1372. In 1381 he was made a member of the Council. In 1389, Bartolo, assisted by Luca Thome to paint the altar-piece for the Shoemakers' Company, in the Cathedral, and continued from that year until his death to furnish altar-pieces for the cathedral and other churches of Siena, which have now all disappeared.


His style is marked by the rejection of the concrete figures. Instead he favor flatter decorative otherworldly compositions. He combined a spirit of fantasy with anecdotal details. More on Bartolo di Fredi

Roman inscriptions, however, identify her simply as a martyr. She may have been related to Saint Domitilla.


Giovanni Francesco Guercino
Petronilla being healed by Saint Peter the Apostle
Private collection

Giovanni Francesco Guercino; see below

Stories associated with her include those that relate that she was so beautiful that Saint Peter had locked her up in a tower to keep her from eligible men; that a pagan king named Flaccus, wishing to marry her, led Petronilla to go on a hunger strike, from which she died. More on Saint Aurelia Petronilla

Simone Pignoni
Death of St Petronilla, second half of the 17th century
Oil on canvas
141x114 cm
Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Refusing to marry the patrician Flaccus, after three days of fasting and prayer St Petronilla died. 

Pignoni shows the moment when Petronilla, just before her death, is given last communion by the priest Nicomedes, a pupil of St Peter. The girl's pale face with its shadows around the eyes seems to be almost translucent, while the blue ray which pierces the clouds floods her figure with a cold light. More on this painting

Simone Pignoni (April 17, 1611 – December 16, 1698) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. He is best known for painting in a style reminiscent of the morbidly sensual Furini. Reflective of this obsession is his self-portrait, c. 1650, in which he depicts himself building up a plump naked female from a skeleton. The biographer Baldinucci, in what little he notes of the painter, recalls him as the scandalous "imitator of (Furini's) licentious inventions".

Among his more conventional works are a St. Agatha cured by St. Peter (attributed) in the Museo Civico di Trieste; a St. Louis providing a banquet for the poor (c. 1682) now in the church of Santa Felicita in Florence, commissioned by Conte Luigi Gucciardini; and a Madonna and child in glory with archangels Saints Michael and Raphael in battle armor and San Antonio of Padua (1671) for the Cappella di San Michele in Santissima Annunziata. He painted an Allegory of Peace in Palazzo Vecchio. A Penitent Magdalen that has been attributed to Pignoni is found in the Pitti Palace. In San Bartolomeo in Monteoliveto, he painted a Madonna appearing to Blessed Bernardo Tolomeo. More Simone Pignoni


Guercino, (1591–1666)
The Burial of Saint Petronilla, c. 1623
Oil on canvas
Height: 7,200 mm (23.62 ft); Width: 4,230 mm (13.87 ft)
Capitoline Museums, Rome, Italy


The painting simultaneously depicts the burial and the welcoming to heaven of the martyred Saint Petronilla. The altarpiece was painted for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, for a chapel dedicated to the saint and containing her relics. More on this painting

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School. By 1615, he moved to Bologna, where his work was praised by Ludovico Carracci. Guercino painted two large canvases, Elijah Fed by Ravens and Samson Seized by Philistines, for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara. These paintings have a stark naturalist Caravaggesque style, although it is unlikely that Guercino saw any of the Roman Caravaggios first-hand.

Guercino's early works are often tumultuous. He often claimed that his early style was influenced by a canvas of Ludovico Carracci that he saw in the Capuchin church in Cento. Some of his later works are closer to the style of his contemporary Guido Reni, and are painted with more lightness and clearness. More on Guercino


Fresco of the mid-4th century, with the martyr Petronilla on the right, leading a young woman named Veneranda into the garden of Paradise.




Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright
I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.
I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.
 If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.
 Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.
 Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Saturday, May 30, 2020

05 Works, Today, May 30th is Saint Joan's day, her story in Paintings #150

Jules Bastien-Lepage
Joan of Arc, c. 1879
Oil on canvas
100 × 110 in (254 × 279.4 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art


As one of the Lorraine natives inspired by the sudden relevance of Joan of Arc's image, Jules Bastien-Lepage in 1875 started sketches for this life-sized portrait of Joan of Arc showing her at the moment that she received her first call to arms against the English invaders of 1424. Bastien-Lepage captures the suddenness of the call by showing the overturned chair from which she has just sprung at her spinning wheel behind her together with the wet edge of her dress that has just brushed through the dew from the weeds in the garden at the back of her parents' house. More on this painting

Jules Bastien-Lepage (1 November 1848 – 10 December 1884) was a French painter closely associated with the beginning of naturalism, an artistic style that emerged from the later phase of the Realist movement. He was born in the village of Damvillers, Meuse, and spent his childhood there. Bastien took an early liking to drawing, and his parents fostered his creativity by buying prints of paintings for him to copy.

Jules's first formal training was at Verdun, and prompted by a love of art he went to Paris in 1867, where he was admitted to the École des Beaux-arts, working under Cabanel. He was awarded first place for drawing but spent most of his time working alone, only occasionally appearing in class. During the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, Bastien fought and was wounded. After the war, he returned home to paint the villagers and recover from his wound. In 1873 he painted his grandfather in the garden, a work that would bring the artist his first success at the Paris Salon.

His initial success was confirmed in 1875 by the First Communion, a picture of a little girl minutely worked up. The last picture, Haymaking (Les Foins), now in the Musée d'Orsay, was widely praised by critics and the public alike. It secured his status as one of the first painters in the Naturalist school.


Between 1880 and 1883 he traveled in Italy. The artist, long ailing, had tried in vain to re-establish his health in Algiers. He died in Paris in 1884, when planning a new series of rural subjects. More Jules Bastien-Lepage

The Roman Catholic Church pays tribute Thursday, May 30, to the life and works of the patron saint of soldiers and of France – Saint Joan (Santa Juana) of Arc.


Hermann Stilke, (1803–1860)
Joan of Arc in Battle, c. 1843
(Central Part of The Life of Joan of Arc Triptych)
Oil on canvas
135 × 146 cm (53.1 × 57.4 in)
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Born Jeanne la Pucelle in 1412 in Domremy, France, St. Joan, at the young age of 17, led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years’ War, a prolonged conflict between France and England from 1337 to 1453.


Eugène Lenepveu, (1819–1898)
Coronation of Charles VII in Reims in the presence of Joan of Arc, c. 1880
Panthéon de Paris


Jules Eugène Lenepveu Boussaroque de Lafont, known as Jules Eugène Lenepveu (1819 – 16 October 1898, Paris) was a French painter. Born at Angers, he studied at the école des Beaux-Arts, and later he was a pupil of François-Édouard Picot in Paris. He entered the École nationale. After winning the Prix de Rome, he went to Rome to complete his education. He became famous for his vast historical canvases, including the ceilings of the Opéra de Paris (1869–1871; covered by a Marc Chagall work), and of the theatre at Angers (1871). He was director of the French Academy in Rome from 1873 to 1878. More on Jules Eugène Lenepveu

Attributing her victories to divine guidance, Charles VII was able to assume his rightful throne as king of France with her by his side.


Dillens, Adolf-Alexander, 1821-1877
Capture of Joan of Arc, between 1847 and 1852
Oil on panel
52,5x72 cm
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, Russia


Adolf Alexander Dillens, (1821–1877), a Belgian genre-painter, was born at Ghent in 1821, and received instruction from his elder brother Hendrik Dillens. His first works were of an historical nature, but he afterwards devoted himself to pictures illustrating Zealand peasant life. He died in 1877. More on Adolf Alexander Dillens

Later, however, she started to lose her battles because of lack of support from the king. She was captured and burned at the stake in Rouen, France on May 30, 1431 at the age of 19. Her last word was “Jesus.”


Hermann Stilke, (1803–1860)
Joan of Arc's Death at the Stake, c. 1843
Oil on canvas
119.5 cm (47 in); Width: 83.5 cm (32.8 in)
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Hermann Anton Stilke , born on January 29 , 1803 in Berlin and died on September 22, 1860in Berlin, is a German romantic painter .

Stilke studied at the Academy of Arts in Berlin , then in Munich from 1821, at the Academy of Fine Arts. He then studied at the Düsseldorf Academy of Fine Arts. He painted the arches of the Hofgarten of Munich with many frescoes .

He left to tour Italy in 1827 and went first to the north, then to Rome . He returned to Düsseldorf in 1833. He worked in the knights' room of the castle of Stolzenfels , near Koblenz , on the banks of the Rhine from 1842 to 1846, on the order of Frederick William IV 

He returned to Berlin in 1850, where he died ten years later at the age of 57.

His work is mainly inspired by religious and romantic themes ( the Maid of Orleans , Saint George and the Angel , The Last Christians of Syria (1841), etc.) More on Hermann Anton Stilke

Thirty years later, St. Joan was exonerated of all guilt and was subsequently beatified at the historic Norte Dame Cathedral in Paris which was partly damaged by a recent fire. Pope Benedict XV canonized her in 1920. More on Saint Joan of Arc





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright
I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.
I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.
 If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.
 Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.
 Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Friday, May 29, 2020

04 Works, Today, May 29th is Constantine XI Palaiologos' day, his story in Paintings #149

Constantine XI Paleologus (Last Eastern Emperor) (1405-1453)

"Elate na thn paretai (come and take her). - Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Paleologus to the Turkish Sultan Mehmet II upon his demand to surrender Constantinople.

Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
Constantinople, the capital and founding city of the Byzantine Empire, c. 1422 CE by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti. 

This is the oldest surviving map of the city and the only one that predates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453 CE.

Cristoforo Buondelmonti (1386 - c. 1430) was an Italian Franciscan priest and traveler, and a pioneer in promoting first-hand knowledge of Greece and its antiquities throughout the Western world.

He left his native city of Florence, in Tuscany, around 1414 C.E. in order to travel, mainly in the Aegean Islands. He visited Constantinople in the 1420s. He is the author of two historical-geographic works: the Descriptio insulae Cretae (1417, in collaboration with Niccolò Niccoli) and the Liber insularum Archipelagi (1420). These two books are a combination of geographical information and contemporary charts and sailing directions. The last one contains the oldest surviving map of Constantinople, and the only one which antedates the Ottoman conquest of the city in 1453.


While travelling over the island of Andros, he bought a Greek manuscript and brought it back with him to Italy. This was the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, which played a considerable role both in humanistic thinking and in art. More on Cristoforo Buondelmonti

Previously serving as regent for his brother John VIII 1437–1439, Constantine succeeded his brother, who died in Constantinople of natural causes in 1448, as Emperor following a short dispute with his younger brother Demetrios. Despite the mounting difficulties of his reign, contemporary sources generally speak respectfully of Constantine. 


Gentile Bellini, (1429–1507)
Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481 CE)
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and conqueror of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
The National Gallery, London.

Gentile Bellini (c. 1429 – 23 February 1507) was an Italian painter of the school of Venice. He came from Venice's leading family of painters, and at least in the early part of his career was more highly regarded than his younger brother Giovanni Bellini, the reverse of the case today. From 1474 he was the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice, and as well as his portraits he painted a number of very large subjects with multitudes of figures, especially for the Scuole Grandi of Venice, wealthy confraternities that were very important in Venetian patrician social life.


In 1479 he was sent to Constantinople by the Venetian government when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II requested an artist; he returned the next year. Thereafter a number of his subjects were set in the East, and he is one of the founders of the Orientalist tradition in Western painting. His portrait of the Sultan was also copied in paintings and prints and became known all over Europe. More on Gentile Bellini 

Constantine would rule for just over 4 years, his reign culminating in the Ottoman siege and conquest of Constantinople, the imperial capital, under Sultan Mehmed II. Constantine did what he could to organize the defenses of the city, stockpiling food and repairing the old Theodosian walls, but the reduced domain of the Empire and the poor economy meant that organizing a force large enough for the defense of the city was impossible. 


Theophilos Hatzimihail, (1870–1934) 
Konstantinos Paleologos in battle, 1453, c. 1932
Battle inside the city, Constantine is visible on a white horse
Theofilos MuseumLesvos, Greece

Theophilos Hatzimihail born c. 1870, Vareia; died in Vareia, Greece, 24 March 1934), known simply as Theophilos, was a major folk painter of modern Greek art. The main subject of his works are Greek characters and the illustration of Greek traditional folklife and history.

His life was very hard, partially because people made fun of him since he often wore the traditional Greek kilt, the fustanella, in public. At the age of 18 he abandoned his home and family and worked as a gate-keeper.

He stayed in Smyrna for a few years before he settled in the city of Volos in about 1897, searching for occasional work and painting in houses and shops of the area. Many of his murals exist today. As well as painting, he was also involved in organizing popular theatrical acts for national ceremonies.

In 1927 he returned to Mytilene, despite the mockery of the people, he continued to draw, painting many murals in villages for little payment, usually for a plate of food and a cup of wine. Many of his works of this period have been lost, either due to natural aging or from damage by the owners.

In Mytilene, the renowned art critic and publisher Stratis Eletheriadis (Tériade), who lived in Paris, discovered Theophilos and brought him a great deal of recognition and also international publicity, though posthumous. With Tériade's funding in 1964 the Museum of Theophilos was constructed in Vareia, Lesbos.


Theophilos died in March 1934, on the eve of the Annunciation, perhaps from food poisoning. One year later, his works were exhibited in the Louvre as a sample of a genuine folk painter of Greece. More on Theophilos Hatzimihail

Constantine led the defending forces, numbering approximately 7,000, against an Ottoman army numbering around 10 times that and died in the ensuing fighting.

Following his death, he became a legendary figure in Greek folklore as the Marmaromenos Vasilias, the "Marble Emperor" who would awaken and recover the Empire and Constantinople from the Ottomans. His death marked the end of the Roman Empire. It had continued in the East as the Byzantine Empire for 977 years after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476. The Empire had begun with the reign of Augustus in 27 BC, 1,479 years previously. More on Constantine XI Palaiologos





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright
I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.
I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.
 If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.
 Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.
 Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.