Thursday, January 24, 2019

05 Works, Today, January 24nd, Saint Timothy's Day, With Footnotes - 24

St. Timothy's Martyrdom

Saint Timothy, (died AD 97, Ephesus, now in Turkey); disciple of St. Paul the Apostle, whom he accompanied on his missions; traditional martyr and first bishop of Ephesus.

Saint Timothy, the Unlikely Disciple

On his second visit to Lystra in 50, Paul discovered Timothy, taking him as a colleague but first circumcising him out of respect for his Jewish mother and grandmother, Lois and Eunice, the custom of the Jews in whose communities they were to do mission work. Timothy worked with Paul and Silas and helped found churches, notably in Corinth, Thessalonica, and Philippi. He apparently accompanied Paul to Ephesus and Asia Minor. As the presence of his name in the first verses of Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians indicates, he was subsequently associated with Paul’s imprisonment at Ephesus. In the Pastoral Epistles he is solely in charge of the Christians at Ephesus.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn 
Timothy and Lois, c. 1650s
Oil on canvas
Height: 117 cm (46 ″); Width: 89 cm (35 ″)
Hermitage Museum

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.
In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization. More on Rembrandt

Willem Drost, (1633–1659)
Timothy and his grandmother, c. 1648

Oil on panel
Height: 40.5 cm (15.9 ″); Width: 31.7 cm (12.4 ″)
Private collection

Willem Drost (baptized 19 April 1633 – buried 25 February 1659) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and printmaker of history paintings and portraits who died young, at the age of 25. He is a mysterious figure, closely associated with Rembrandt, with very few paintings attributable to him.
He was presumably born in Amsterdam, in what was then known as the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Around 1650 he became a student of Rembrandt, eventually developing a close working relationship, painting history scenes, biblical compositions, symbolic studies of a solitary figure, as well as portraits. As a student, his 1654 painting titled Bathsheba was inspired by Rembrandt's painting done in the same year on the same subject and given the same title, though their treatments are rather different; both Drost’s and Rembrandt’s paintings are in the Louvre in Paris.
He was in Amsterdam until 1655 and then travelled to Italy. He influenced the painter Adolf Boy. Sometime in the mid-1650s, the young artist went to Rome, where he collaborated with the German artist Johann Carl Loth on a lost series of the Four Evangelists in Venice. He died in the latter city in 1659. More on Willem Drost

Tradition made him first bishop of Ephesus. The apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97, the 80-year-old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the gospel. The angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, and stoned him to death.


St. John of Damascus states that Timothy witnessed the end of the life of the Virgin Mary. More on Saint Timothy

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